List of various sources of Phospholipids, their Properties, and Applications
With the growing awareness towards a healthy lifestyle amongst consumers, the demand for green and naturally sourced ingredients is increasing. Soybean and marine life are some common sources of phospholipids. But there are various other sources left unexplored, creating an opportunity for companies to get an upper hand in the Industry.
Phospholipids from different sources possess considerable differentiation in their molecular species and structure. This differentiation results in different biological activities. Let’s understand this with the help of a few examples.
How do various sources of phospholipids result in different biological activities?
1. Marine phospholipids are significantly better for the treatment as well as prevention of various diseases, including, neurodegenerative or brain diseases comprising Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive impairment, etc. in comparison to phospholipids derived from chicken tissues.
This is because ether phospholipids derived from marine sources are bound to a larger amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at the sn-2 position of glycerol backbone as compared to the conventional plasmalogens-type glycerophospholipids derived from chicken tissues. (Source – US10653708B2)
2. Similarly, milk-derived Sphingomyelin has a relatively good flavor compared to egg-derived sphingomyelin. On the other side, Egg-derived sphingomyelin has better memory and concentration enhancing effects than milk-derived sphingomyelin. These properties of phospholipids derived from milk and eggs, make it pivotal to choose the source, based on the characteristics desired in the end product. (Source – KR102159010B1)
3. Bao et al, 2020 describe the PLs from egg yolk can reverse scopolamine-induced spatial memory loss. The study suggested that egg yolk PLs exert neuroprotective effects via attenuating cholinergic damage and inhibiting oxidative stress in vitro.
4. Rapeseed phospholipids are less sensitive to oxidation in comparison to those of soybean and sunflower oils. This is because soybean and sunflower oils phospholipids contain more unsaturated fatty acids as compared to rapeseed phospholipids. Thus, Rapeseed oil can be a better alternative to soybean and sunflower oils not only in the food industry but in the pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries, as well.
5. A study, Svirgun et al, 2020 compares the effects of lecithins (from soy and sunflower) on disorders of cognitive functions of animals caused by tetrachloromethane. The study shows that there are no significant differences between soy lecithin and sunflower lecithin. Lecithin, obtained from both plants, in conditions of carbon tetrachloride intoxication, prevents the suppression of mobility, unconditional reflex activity and improves the reproduction of CRPA (conditioned response of passive avoidance).
However, sunflower lecithin shows a greater ability to reduce anxiety in animals, i.e. demonstrates antidepressant and higher nootropic activity. And, soy lecithin has a more significant anti-amnestic effect.
Knowing the perfect phospholipid source for your product can do wonders for your research team. And to help you assess these aspects of Phospholipids, we curated a list of sources of food-derived phospholipids including marine, sunflower, rapeseed, etc., along with the information of molecular species, the structure of phospholipids, their biological activities, and their applications in various industries.
So without further ado let’s hop on to the list.
Different Phospholipid Sources
|Level I Phospholipids||Level II |
|Level III Phospholipids||Properties||Application Area|
|Plant||1. Plant cells lack cholesterol, a related compound (sterols) fulfills the similar function.|
2. Plant phospholipids (PLs) do not contain Sphingomyelin.
3. Phosphatidyl glycerol is present in higher amount in plant PLs than animal or marine origin.
4. Plant PLs are more resistant to oxidation as compared to Marine PLs.
|Soybean||1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is the main fatty acid group in the active fraction of soy PLs with linoleic acid as the major component. The presence of PUFA makes soy PLs more sensitive to oxidation than rapeseed PLs (as rapeseed contain mono-unsaturated fatty acid instead of polyunsaturated fatty acid).|
2. Soy PLs have lesser nutritionally beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, as compared to sunflower PLs.
|#1 Health: Improving Bone Health, Treating Dementia, Anti-amnestic effect
#2 Cosmetics: Maintain skin elasticity, Anti-aging, Prevents Pigmentation
#3 Food & Beverages: Alleviate state of drunkenness, Reduce alcoholism
#4 Others: Emulsion Stabilizer, Used in Liposomal Formulation
|Genetically Modified Soybean (GMO)||-|
|Sunflower||1. PUFA is the main fatty acid group in the active fraction of sunflower PLs with linoleic acid as the major component. The presence of PUFA makes sunflower PLs more sensitive to oxidation than rapeseed PLs (as rapeseed contain mono-unsaturated fatty acid instead of polyunsaturated fatty acid).|
2. Sunflower PLs have more nutritionally beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, as compared to soy PLs.
|#1 Health: Anti-depressant & Nootropic effect, Inflammation Treatment
#2 Cosmetics: Soothing Skin Inflammation
#3 Food & Beverages: Dietary Supplement
#4 Others: Emulsion Stabilizer, Injectable
|Rapeseed (canola)||1. The active fraction of rapeseed lecithin possess the highest concentration of monounsaturated fatty acid (more than 50%). Thus, Rapeseed PLs are less sensitive to oxidation than soybean & sunflower oils (Both of them contain polyunsaturated fatty acids). |
2. Rapeseed PLs have higher amount of phosphatidylcholine as compared to sunflower and soy phospholipids.
|#1 Health: Liver Disease Management, Improves Memory
#2 Food & Beverages: Cardiovascular health
#3 Others: Emulsion Stabilizer, Used in Liposomal Formulation
|Corn||Corn lecithin has better emulsifying properties than egg yolk lecithin.||#1 Health: Improve Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and more.
#2 Food & Beverages: Dietary Supplement Improves Chronic Inflammation
#3 Others: Used as emulsifiers for parenteral emulsions
|Palm||Palm oil PL contain high amount of unsaturated fatty acids such as Linoleic acid.||Others: Emulsion Stabilizer|
|Safflower||-||#1 Health: Reduce liver lipid levels, Intestinal Disease Management, Inflammation Treatment
#2 Food & Beverages: Improves Chronic Inflammation
|Peanut||-||Health: Improve Blood Circulation & Waste Removal from the Body|
|Cottonseed||-||#1 Health: Improve Blood Circulation & Waste Removal from the Body
#2 Food & Beverages: Cottonseed Phospholipid in Wine Improve cardiovascular health
#3 Other: Emulsion Stabilizer
|Animal sources||1. Animal PLs contain cholesterol.|
2. It also contain sphingomyelin.
glycerol is present at a level of only 1-2% in animal tissues.
4. Animal PLs contain only small amount of ω-3 PUFAs.
5. Animal PLs are more resistant to oxidation as compared to Marine PLs.
|Egg yolk||Egg yolk PLs contain higher levels of saturated fatty acids than soybean PLs. Due to this, egg yolk PLs have higher oxidative stability.||#1 Health: Memory and concentration enhancing effect
#2 Cosmetics: Topical Applicator
#3 Food & Beverages: Egg yolk Phospholipid in Wine Improve cardiovascular health
#4 Others: Emulsion Stabilizer
|Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM)||1. Milk derived Sphingomyelin has a relatively good flavour compared to egg-derived sphingomyelin. (sensory properties and marketability as a food or drug). |
2. Milk phospholipid liposomes disintegrate slower than soy lecithin liposomes.
3. Milk PLs possess antioxidant properties in vitro.
|#1 Health: Improves memory, reduce stress, suppress Alzheimer’s disease and enhance brain development in infants
#2 Cosmetics: Recover Skin damage
#3 Others: Emulsion Stabilizer
|Bovine/Calf Lung Extract||-||#1 Health: Prevent respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature neonates
#2 Cosmetics: Topical Applicators for prevention & treatment of Microbial Infections
|Porcine Lung Extract||-||Health: Prevent respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature neonates|
|Chicken Tissue||-||Health: Reduce blood lipid levels in mice, protect liver cells and improve liver cell steatosis.|
|Marine/Aquatic Sources||1. Marine PLs have been reported to have only traces of cholesterol.|
2. Marine PLs contain small amount of sphingomyelin.
3. Phosphatidyl glycerol is found only in marine proteobacteria.
4. Marine PLs are rich in ω-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
5. Due to the presence of ω-3 PUFAs, marine PLs are highly prone to oxidation in conventional extractions accomplished by the incorporation of organic solvents, exposure to atmospheric oxygen, and high temperature.
|#1 Health: Prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, metabolic diseases, Inflammation and More
#2 Cosmetics: Topical Applications for Hair, nail and skin disorders
#3 Food And Beverages: Bitter Taste Masking Agent for food composition
#Others: Used in liposomal formulations for drug delivery
|Fish (Specially Cold Water Fish)||#1 Health: Improve Atherosclerosis, CVDs, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and renal disorders
#2 Cosmetics: Topical Applicators
#3 Food & Beverages: Marine Nutritional composition increase the percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
|Salmon||Phospholipid derived from Salmon are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These phospholipids disperse in water and are easily digestible when consumed.||#1 Health: Lowers the risk of heart attack
#2 Others: Emulsion Stabilizer, Used in Liposomal Formulation
|Herring||Herring PLs helps in improving bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs.||Health: Lowers the risk of heart attack|
|Mackerel||1. Phospholipid content is higher in fish roe than in other parts of the fish. |
2. Blue mackerel roe contains highest amount of n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA).
|Anchovies||Lecithin from anchovy contain high amounts of ω-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA. EPA and DHA in lecithin are the most susceptible to oxidation. But lecithin obtained from anchovy showed high oxidative stability as lecithin from anchovy may contain small amounts of natural antioxidants.||-|
|Sardines||-||Health: decrease low density lipoproteins in blood, prevents atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease|
|Antarctic Krill (Euphausia Superb)||Total contents of the Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) in Krill Oil PLs are 29.31%.||#1 Health: Improving cognitive function, muscle strength & sleep, Reduces anxiety
#2 Cosmetics: Topical Applications for Skin and Hair Care
|Bivalve/Scallop/Oyster||Ether PLs derived from bivalve are bound to a larger amount of EPA and DHA at the sn-2 position of glycerol backbone as compared to the conventional plasmalogens-type glycerophospholipids derived from chicken tissues.||#1 Health: Treat & prevent Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment, brain fatigue, Cancer and more.
#2 Food & Beverages: Food Supplementation change fatty acid composition in brain tissue, Help in synapse formation, neuronal proliferation and differentiation
|Sea cucumber/Blue Mussel||Sea cucumber (SC) and blue mussel (BM) are rich sources of n-3 PUFA structured in the phospholipid form. DHA and EPA structured in the phospholipid form possess superior biological effects compared to the triglyceride form available in fish oil.||Health: Reduce insulin resistance and obesity|
|Squid||1. Both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are available in Squid PLs. |
2. Major saturated fatty acids in Squid PLs are Palmitic acid (C16:0) and the major unsaturated fatty acids in Squid PLs are Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3).
|#1 Health: Reduce lipid accumulation in liver, Hepato-protective effects
#2 Food & Beverages: Squid Supplementation change fatty acid composition in brain tissue, Help in synapse formation, neuronal proliferation and differentiation
Get the complete list for later use including the industrial application as well as the overall concentration and concentration of the components of these phospholipids in just a click.
Overall the utilization of phospholipids, particularly the bioactive ones, has gained huge attention. This is due to their enrichment of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The Phospholipid market is growing. The prime reasons for this growth are-
1. Their sources are easily obtainable in the environment.
2. The various end-use purposes that these ingredients have in multiple industries.
But consumers now want their products naturally sourced, even plant-based. This has created a need for companies to explore further the sources of phospholipids and get an upper hand in the industry.
Want to find the best suitable source of phospholipids for your product and the companies working on it? Contact us now.
List Curated By: Sabarna, Landscape, Authored By: Nidhi, Marketing.